Ruta de l’aigua i del foc a Clariana de Cardener

Aigua i Foc a Clariana de Cardener és una ruta per conèixer l’aigua, amb els boscos de ribera que l’acompanyen i els paisatges sorgits després del gran incendi forestal de 1998. El pantà de Sant Ponç, el riu Cardener i l’aiguabarreig del Cardener amb el Riu Negre ens permeten observar boscos de ribera que acompanyem a cursos d’aigua ben poc modestos i la nombrosa arquitectura popular associada a l’aigua. El pantà de Sant Ponç, el reservori d’aigua del baix Solsonès, va ser també un dels punts d’aigua imprescindibles per apagar el Gran Incendi Forestal del 1998 que va afectar, entre d’altres municipis, el de Clariana de Cardener. En aquell foc hi van desaparèixer gairebé 27.000 hecctàrees de bosc i matolls, gairebé 20 milions d’arbres de valuosos boscos de pinasses, roures, alzines i carrasques.

El terme municipal de Clariana de Cardener es troba bàsicament a la vall mitjana del riu Cardener. És per aquest motiu, doncs, que el terme és orogràficament una sèrie de terrenys emboscats inclinats cap al curs d’aquest riu, així com cap al riu Negre i la rasa d’Anglerill, ja per la banda de contacte amb Riner i Cardona. Paisatgísticament el terme és dominat per les pinedes i els conreus de cereals, una combinació que forma un mosaic agroforestal amb interessants clapes de bosc de ribera, que es troben seguint els principals cursos fluvials del baix Solsonès, amb el Cardener com a protagonista.

Clariana és un municipi de població principalment disseminada, en masies aïllades. No obstant això, té algunes entitats destacades d’origen bàsicament parroquial, com Clariana (que dóna nom al municipi i en fa de centre administratiu), Sant Ponç, Sant Just i Joval i Hortoneda.

 

Una mica d’història

Els primers rastres de presència humana al terme de Clariana, els conformen llocs d’enterrament del neolític i el calcolític com la necròpolis de Santa Constança.
Ja més endavant, cal destacar el castell de Clariana, les restes del qual encara perviuen dalt del tossal que separa els cursos del Cardener i el riu Negre, a sobre del nucli de Clariana, esmentat ja a l’any 1010, pertanyent al vescomtat de Cardona, (vegeu l’apartat corresponent a la part de la guia a la terra de frontera).
D’altra banda, el lloc de Joval ja s’esmenta també al segle XI pertanyent al llinatge homònim per passar després a ser directament controlat pels Cardona, per també acabar finalment aprofitant-ne les rendes l’Hospital de Cardona.
Amb la formació dels municipis, el 1844, Clariana fou primer annexada a Cardona, ja que en tenia vincles parroquials i jurisdiccions directes evidents des de l’època medieval, però més tard, a partir d’una sèrie de protestes, s’aconseguí la segregació i la configuració com a municipi independent tal i com ha arribat fins a l’actualitat.
Una de les curiositats que marquen el tarannà del municipi de Clariana és el fet que la divisió administrativa municipal, a través de les pròpies entitats de població, i l’eclesiàstica, a través de les parròquies, són independents.

L’aigua

El riu Cardener travessa el Solsonès de dalt a baix per la part occidental. Neix a la Coma i la Pedra i recull les aigües de les serres prepirinenques del Port del Comte, del Verd, del Pedraforca i de la Serra d’Ensija. Al llarg del seu recorregut es topa amb dos embassaments: el de la Llosa del Cavall (als municipis de Guixers, Navès i Sant Llorenç de Morunys) i el de Sant Ponç (situat entre Olius i Clariana de Cardener). A l’alçada de Flotats, sota mateix del castell de Clariana, el Cardener rep les aigües del Riu Negre. Al seu pas pel municipi, el riu recull també les aigües de la rasa Perpètua. Sant Miquel, la Flauta o la Rasa del Rèvol en són també afluents. A 106 quilòmetres del seu naixement (les Fonts del Cardener) i, a l’altura de Castellgalí, el Cardener desemboca al Llobregat.

El Riu Negre neix a Lladurs i, després de passar per Solsona, s’endinsa a les valls d’Olius, Riner i Clariana de Cardener. És en aquest darrer municipi on rep les aigües de les rases de l’Avellanosa, Anglerill i de Guardiola. Tot i que presenta un cabal relativament escàs, antigament les revingudes eren força freqüents. Francisco de Zamora. al segle XVIII, va deixar escrit:  “...té, però, crescudes rierades que tallaven (abans que existís el pont) la comunicació i s’hi havia ofegat gent“.

El pantà de Sant Ponç es va construir entre els anys 1949 i 1954, aprofitant el congost que formen les aigües del Cardener a l’indret de l’antiga ermita de Sant Ponç, que va quedar submergida a les aigües del pantà. Avui, només se’n poden veure les restes de tant en tant, en anys de molta sequera, quan les aigües del pantà baixen prou per deixar-les al descobert. Per tal de substituir-la, es va construir una nova església prop de la presa.

Anterior al disseny del pantà de Sant Ponç, hi hagueren altres projectes com el pantà de la Rabassa. L’historiador local Jaume Fons explica que va ser iniciat el 1932, i posteriorment incautat com a indústria de guerra, durant la guerra civil espanyola. Enlloc de construir un salt a la presa, en derivaria un canal fins a Buidasacs. L’electricitat havia de servir per la mina de Cardona i la construcció anava a càrrec de miners. D’aquest projecte en va reeixir únicament la central hidràulica de la Rabassa, feta el 1990.

Avui, l’embassament de Sant Ponç s’ha convertit en un pol d’activitat turística i de lleure, amb vàries activitats que s’hi poden dur a terme i que a l’estiu tenen la seva màxima efervescència. La caseta del Pantà, s’ofereix una estada tranquil·la amb un refresc sota la pineda que voreja el pantà, i sortides amb caiac.

 

El foc

La tarda del dissabte 18 de juliol del 1998 era una tarda calorosa d’estiu, i es declararen varis incendis a la Catalunya Central. Un d’ells a Aguilar de Segarra, i un altre a Cardona. Aquests dos focus estaven separats per una vintena llarga de quilòmetres s’acabaren fusionant i creant un gran incendi de difícil control, tenint en compte tots els factors -organitzatius, climàtics, etc.- que ho feren possible. El foc cremà durant quatre dies, assolint un front de gairebé 25 km, que arriba a avançar a una velocitat de 4 km/h.
El foc culminà amb 27.000 hectàrees calcinades, amb més de 250 masies afectades, algunes de les quals de Clariana de Cardener.

Immersa en la dinàmica forestal, la comunitat rural ha desenvolupat un teixit col·laboratiu destinat a la defensa dels boscos, com són les Associacions de Defensa Forestal, formades per veïns voluntaris que disposen d’un elevat coneixement de la zona i que estan equipats amb equipaments d’extinció com cubes i mitjans terrestres. També planifiquen punts d’aigua com basses forestal. A Territori de Masies n’hi trobem tres:  Natura Viva (creada al 1980 i que al Sud del Solsonès treballa a La Molsosa, Pinós i Riner), ADF Solsonès Oriental (creada al 1987, i que al Sud del Solsonès treballa a Clariana de Cardener) i l’ADF Sol Verd (creada al 1987, i que al Sud del Solsonès treballa Llobera i Pinell).

 

Altres indrets:

El pont de Canet: Situat 2,5 km aigües avall de la presa de Sant Ponç, era antigament un lloc de pas de l’antic camí ramader que venia de la Segarra i anava cap al Berguedà. Al costat del pont, hi ha l’antic molí homònim.

Capella de la Ribera o de la Purificació: Tot i que és molt anterior (molt probablement romànica, si bé se’n desconeix la data exacta), en una intervenció de principis del segle XX; se’n va enderrocar l’absis i modificar la seva cobertura, deixant-la amb l’aspecte que presenta actualment. És ubicada a la casa de la Ribera.

Ermita de Santa Constança: Està situada entre el pantà de Sant Ponç i la casa del Cogul, prop del camí que de Sant Ponç porta a Cal Bernoi.

Sant Salvador de Golorons. Està situada a tocar d ela casa de Golorons, prop ja del terme d’Olius, al nord de Clariana. En estat més aviat ruïnós, encara e pot contemplar, però la seva factura típica del preromànic (molt probablement es pugui data de final del segle X o de mitjans de l’XI).

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